The intended outcomes (sometimes intended processes) of an intervention or other program or organization. Important in planning, and one framework in terms of which evaluation can be done-by treating evaluation as the investigation of the extent to which goals are or were met. This used to be the only frame for program evaluation-it's called goal-achievement evaluation-but see also goal-free evaluation (GFE). A less radical alternative to GFE is simply to add half a dozen extra components to checking on whether goals were met, and to what extent. These should include: (i) the nature and extent of side-effects; (ii) the available alternatives to the program; (iii) the cost of the program; (iv) the legitimacy/desirability of the means adopted to get to the goals; (v) the merit of the goals; (vi) the extent to which the solution found can be used elsewhere. This provides a concise summary of what is called 'goal-based evaluation' and arguably represents the minimum one should expect from competent program evaluators.